Buffalo. They are extremely docile animals and easily adapt to adverse tropical conditions where cattle hardly survive. They are very long-lived animals, they can live more than 18 years of age in production.
The water buffalo is a domestic animal native to the swampy or semi-swampy areas of Asia. The species “Bubalus bubalis” includes nineteen races. They can be exploited in different ways with dual purposes (milk and meat) and sometimes triple (work). There are two types of water buffalo:
The river buffalo Bubalus bubalis bubalis comprising a large number of breeds from India, Pakistan and some European countries.
The swamp buffalo Bubalus bubalis karebau with great potential for meat production and satisfactory dairy performance.
Notably, the heat conversion efficiency makes it better weight gainers and efficient milk producers in tropical and subtropical conditions. The natural parking of the service in the fall, allows a perfect adaptation of the requirements to the forage curve of the Subtropics. The buffalo do not need to wait for the green grass “flushing” that occurs during the spring to come into heat. It is enough for him to moderate the summer temperatures, entering heat from March to June, with fibrous grasses (yes, there must be a minimum volume).
The heat is cut when the low temperatures begin to be maintained. This characteristic of the buffalo allows it to produce milk and meat, not only in temperate zones, but also in the subtropics (provided that a prudent handling of loads is done in the winter, the buffalo on average represents a load of 1.2 cow equivalent).
Regarding meat production, the offspring in the field and in subtropical conditions have a linear growth and weight gain curve, uninterrupted from birth (January to April, average March) until 15 months of age, where a second enters winter, but without too serious consequences because he has not yet changed his teeth (the first pair of permanent incisors erupts at 2 1/2, 3 years of age). This allows it to reach, at 27-30 months of age (when it enters its third winter), that of slaughter is 500 to 550 kilos of live weight.
Most exploited breeds
It is a breed native to the northern Philippines.
- Of nervous temperament and difficult to tame.
- They have a greyish brown color with white spots on certain parts of the body.
- The horns are longer and are directed downwards and slightly backwards, with sharp ends.
- They are very well adapted for survival in swampy areas.
- It is a breed that is used more for the production of meat than milk.
- They have a useful life of approximately 18 years with a total of 12 deliveries on average during their productive stage.
- The duration of lactation varies between 240 and 250 days.
- The calving interval varies between 330 and 410 days.
They are originally from India.
- Long and voluminous body with great capacity of the rib cage.
- Black skin and large head with great development of the frontal bone.
- Horns that descend to the sides of the face, in front of the ears, ending in a curl.
- The back is raised towards the withers and slightly curved.
- The haunch is large, long and straight.
- The udder is well shaped, with symmetrically arranged quarters and cylindrical teats.
- Excellent producer of meat and milk.
- Milk production fluctuates between 1,800 and 2,700 liters. by lactation with a fat between 8% to 10%.
- The live weight of an adult male fluctuates between 700 and 1,500 kg.
- Females weigh between 600 and 950 kg.
Buffalos of the Mediterranean breed
It is a breed native to Europe.
- Proportionally large and convex head.
- Medium horns of triangular section, thick and strong directed backwards and to the sides with the tips closed upwards and inwards, forming a half moon.
- Face is long and narrow.
- Body is wide in relation to its length and the legs are short and robust.
- Males weigh between 700 and 800 kg and females approximately 600 kg.
- Milk production per lactation varies between 1,080 and 1,560 liters / lactation / buffalo.
- Female lifespan is 18 years with approximately 10 young.
It is native to India.
- Large, solid body
- Black skinned with hairs in the thoracic region.
- Proportionately large well-shaped udder with symmetrical quarters.
- Easy to handle and pull nipples.
- The horns are short, small and thin curled back.
- Excellent producers of milk and meat.
- The duration of lactation is approximately 300 days.
- Milk production fluctuates between 1500 and 1700 liters of milk per lactation.
- The percentage of fat in milk is 7.5% on average.
- Average daily weight gain is 620 grams / day.
- Females fluctuate between 470 and 700 Kg.
Buffaloes of the Nili breed – Ravi
Buffalo of the Nili breed – Ravi
Punjab province in India.
- Skin is black although there are some animals with dark brown coloration.
- His eyes are large and white, with blue irises.
- The forehead, face, muzzle, limbs and tuft of tail are white.
- The horns are curled like those of the Murrah.
- The body is round and compact, a bit short and with a slightly curved back.
- Well developed udder.
- Excellent milk producers.
- Average lactation of 326 days.
- Between 1,800 and 2,700 liters of milk per lactation.
- The male can weigh 760 kg and female 550 kg.