Hawaii (abbr.: HI or Hi.), state of the United States of America, comprising the Hawaii Islands in the Pacific Ocean, about 3,860 km from San Francisco (California), 28,313 km2 (land area, incl. inland waterways ), with 1.1 million inhabitants; Capital: Honolulu, on the island of Oahu. The archipelago consists of 8 main islands and more than 120 smaller, partly uninhabited, islands and atolls. The largest islands are Hawaii (10,443 km2, populous 120,000), Maui (1884 km2, populated 100,000), Oahu (1555 km2, populated 836,000), Kauai (1431 km2, populated 51,000), Molokai (673 km2, populated 6,700)..), Lanai (364 km2, pop 2400), Niihau (178 km2, pop 230) and Kahoolawe (115 km2, uninhabited).
The islands were largely created during a major eruption in the Tertiary, in which volcanoes were built up on the seabed (in some places at a depth of more than 5000 m). The highest volcano is currently the Mauna Kea (4193 m), the Haleakala located on Maui has one of the largest craters in the world (circumference 30 km). Today, Mauna Loa, the largest volcano in the world (4169 m, 30 eruptions since 1843, last eruption in 1984) and the Kilauea (1243 m) are still active. Because of the thin lava, the volcanoes have little compression of gases and damaging eruptions are rare. The weathered lava forms a fertile soil on the islands. Numerous coral islands have formed on volcanoes not raised above the sea surface or on elevations reduced to sea surface by weathering. Coral formation also accompanies the coasts of the larger islands. The islands continue to experience problems as a result of volcanic activity at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean: the coasts are sometimes ravaged by dangerous tidal waves or tsunamis, originating from the epicenters of tremors in the Aleutian Islands, Atacama and Japanese troughs. The islands are located in the area of the northeast trade wind that blows almost all year round. Partly under the influence of a cold sea current from the area near the Bering Strait, the climate is cooler than elsewhere at the same latitude; the temperature is fairly even (at sea level an average of 23°C, with a maximum of 30°C and a minimum of 11°C). The rainfall mainly occurs on the windward side of the islands. Kauai has the highest rainfall in the world.
Flora and fauna
The percentage of endemic plant species is very high, at 82%, as on other oceanic islands. Many of these also have a very local distribution; the palm genus Pritchardia, for example, has thirty species on eight islands, none of which have been observed on more than one island. The original vegetation of Hawaii belongs to the (rather rare) subtropical rainforest: the trees always have green leaves, but a seasonal difference is already noticeable; there are fewer flowering plants and lianas than in the tropical rainforest, but many epiphytes. Characteristic forest-forming species include the koa (Acacia koa) and the Pritchardia and Kentia palms. The original jungle on the larger islands has disappeared, except for a forest border on the mountain slopes between 1000 m and 2000 m.
The central plateau of Hawaii is a steppe, the Kau Desert. Due to its remoteness, several species-rich endemic families have developed within the animal world, especially among the land snails (Achatinellidae), insects and birds. The western islands have a rich avifauna, of which some species, e.g. the Hawaii honeysuckle, are unique. Hawaii had 125 bird species, of which about 25 have now disappeared. There are some nature reserves (including one for terns, albatrosses and petrels) and national parks. Many fish and turtles live in the shallow waters. Originally there was only one mammal species (a bat). However, man introduced all kinds of domestic animals (goats, pigs, dogs, mongooses), which became feral and had a harmful influence on the native fauna. They were about
Less than 2% of the original population, Polynesians, is left, while about 20% is of mixed Hawaiian blood. Today, the majority of the population is white (34%), followed by Japanese (22%), Filipinos (15%) and Chinese (6%). The average population density is 39 inhabitants. per km2. About 80% of the population lives in the Honolulu metropolitan area. Other cities of some size include Hilo, Kailua, Kaneohe, and Waipahu. See top cities in Hawaii.
Federal agencies (Barber’s Point Naval Air Station, Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard, Hickam Air Force Base, Kaneohe Marine Corps Air Station, Schofield Barracks) bring more than just agriculture and tourism together. The main employer is the government, followed by the commercial sector. Only 9% of the combined surface of the six largest islands is suitable for intensive agriculture. The main crops are export crops (sugar cane, pineapple, orchids), papayas, macadamia nuts, coffee. Despite fruit and vegetable cultivation and some arable and livestock farming, 75% of the required food is imported. Cement is the most important of the minerals. The industry includes processing and packaging of agricultural products (sugar, dried fruits), mechanical engineering, petroleum refining, printing and textile industry; in addition, manufacture of high-quality electronics (including military and communications satellites). Tourism is of exceptional importance, especially because of the pleasant climate, the natural beauty and the folklore, now largely commercialized (including the hula dance).
Tourism, initially based mainly on passenger shipping and cruises, has grown massively since flight time between the North American continent and the islands was reduced to five hours; about 7 million tourists visit the state every year, generating a turnover of more than 10 billion US dollars. There are currently seven commercial airports. The main seaport is Honolulu, with connections to the US mainland, Canada, Australia, the Philippines, China and Japan.
The largest tourist center is Waikiki Beach on Oahu, where most of the hotels are located. Furthermore, the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on Hawaii and the Haleakala National Park on Maui. Polynesian heritage is honored in many places, including the Pu’uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park in Honaunau and the village of Ulu Mau in Kaneohe. On Mauna Kea (Hawaii) volcano is an observatory with the largest telescope in the world, the Keck telescope with a 982 cm mirror.
The islands were probably colonized from Tahiti by the Polynesians in the 1st century; the first European to discover the islands (Jan. 1778) was the navigator James Cook, who gave them the name Sandwich Islands. Under King Kamehameha I (1795–1819) the until then almost all independently governed islands were brought together into one empire.
About 1820 Protestant missionaries arrived from New England, who founded schools and began to write the language of the country. But American interests also started to interfere in the island kingdom, which turned out to be very suitable for sugar cane cultivation. Soon there were large plantations. In 1887, the American planters revolted and enforced a liberal constitution with the ultimate intention of annexing the country to America, thereby falling under American protection. Queen Liliuokalani, who came to power in 1891, tried to restore indigenous authority, but a new planter revolution, supported by US envoy JL Stevens, overthrew her. In 1893, U.S. Marines landed, after which Stevens overthrew the planters’ leader, B. Dole, recognized and proclaimed American protection over the islands. However, the Senate in Washington would not accept this and President Cleveland sent a special envoy, JH Blount, to investigate. When he made it clear that planter interests were the cause of all the trouble, Cleveland sent a new envoy, AS Willis, to Hawaii to work on the restoration of Queen Liliuokalani’s government. But Dole wouldn’t give up, and because America didn’t want to use force against its own countrymen, the Republican government continued to exist. When he made it clear that planter interests were the cause of all the trouble, Cleveland sent a new envoy, AS Willis, to Hawaii to work on the restoration of Queen Liliuokalani’s government. But Dole wouldn’t give up, and because America didn’t want to use force against its own countrymen, the Republican government continued to exist. When he made it clear that planter interests were the cause of all the trouble, Cleveland sent a new envoy, AS Willis, to Hawaii to work on the restoration of Queen Liliuokalani’s government. But Dole wouldn’t give up, and because America didn’t want to use force against its own countrymen, the Republican government continued to exist.
Cleveland’s successor, McKinley, immediately drafted an annexation treaty in 1897, but it was rejected by the Senate. However, after the Spanish-American War of 1898, the situation had changed and the islands became American territory. In 1900 they were given the status of territory. The significance of the islands for the United States turned out to be mainly of a strategic nature. A major naval and air base was built on the island of Oahu, and it was this base, Pearl Harbor, that was the first target of the Japanese attack on Dec. 1941, bringing the United States into World War II. In 1959, Hawaii became the 50th United States of America.
National Parks Hawaii
Haleakala National Park
The Haleakala National Park was established to conserve the Haleakala Crater and to protect the ecosystems in the Kipahulu Valley. The Haleakala was once an active volcano feared by the locals, but it has not been active since 1750. It is possible to visit Haleakala Crater on foot or on horseback and get a glimpse of an ancient crater. The park also houses a scientific center that conducts research on the crater, because it can always come to life this volcano. From Kahului it is about a 3 hour drive to Haleakala Crater.
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Located in the middle of a subtropical forest in Hawaii, this park is home to two more famously active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. The park extends from the Mauna Loa volcano to the coast at Kalapana. In addition to these two volcanoes, there are three other volcanoes in Hawaii, as Hawaii is one of the most volcanic areas in the world. There are several camping areas in the park that are open all year round. If you want to spend the night in a hotel, the Volcano House is a must, because it is built on the edge of the Kilauea Crater. To get a good look at the park, the Crater Rim Road is highly recommended because this road leads you through the entire park.