New Hampshire (abbr.: NH or NH), state of the United States of America, 24,097 km2, with 1.1 million inhabitants; capital: Concord. New Hampshire owes its nickname Granite State to the formerly important granite mining.
New Hampshire has a distinctly mountainous character; the numerous mountain ranges, mainly south-north, are continuations of the Appalachians. The main chain is formed by the White Mountains in central New Hampshire; the highest point in the state is also located here: Mount Washington (1917 m). The New England Uplands in the southeast merge into a coastal plain. There are five major rivers. The drainage from the west of the state is through the longest, the Connecticut. More important is the Merrimack, channeled upstream to Concord. In addition to the Merrimack, the south is drained by the Piscataqua and its tributary the Cocheco. The Androscoggin takes care of the drainage of the northeast. Of the more than 1,300 lakes, Lake Winnipesaukee (180 km2) is the largest. New Hampshire has moderately warm summers,
The average population density is 46 inhabitants. per km2. About 51% of the population lives in urban areas. The largest cities are: Manchester, Nashua and Concord. See top cities in New Hampshire.
New Hampshire, which has no significant mining and agriculture and has to import almost all raw materials, is one of the most industrialized states in the United States. The manufacture of shoes has traditionally played an important role. Also important are wood processing and the manufacture of machines, electrical appliances and textiles, also rubber and plastics, electronics, household goods, foodstuffs and the printing and publishing houses. Forestry (more than 80% of the state is covered by forest) and tourism (sandy beaches, forest, hunting, winter sports) are becoming increasingly important from an economic point of view.
Natural beauty is New Hampshire’s biggest draw. Notable are the beaches, the lake area with Lake Winnipesaukee, the White Mountains with Mount Washington, and the state parks Franconia Motch and Crafword Motch.
The short coast was explored as early as 1603 by Martin Pring, in 1605 by Champlain, and in 1614 by John Smith. A first permanent establishment followed in 1623. In 1622 the New England council gave the greater part of the area as a special grant to Sir Ferdinande Gorges and John Mason, and the latter gave the area its name in 1629, when he had become virtually sole proprietor of it. His heirs completely separated the area from Massachusetts in 1679 by placing themselves under the protection of the Crown. Royal decisions mediated border disputes with Massachusetts (1741) and New York (1764). Wars with the Indians hindered development for a long time. In the American Revolutionary War, New Hampshire was the first state to depose its English governor and form its own government.