New Jersey (abbreviation: NJ or NJ), state of the United States of America, 20,295 km2, with 7.7 million inhabitants; capital city: Trenton.
From north to south, four landscapes descending in height can be distinguished: a. in the extreme northwest the chains of the Kittatinny Mountains running in a southwest-northeast direction; the highest point in the state is located here: High Point (550 m); b. a tableland, the New England Upland, nowhere wider than about 30 km; c. the Piedmont Lowlands, up to 300 m high, and d. the coastal plain, which comprises about 60% of the total surface of the state, closed on the sea side by a row of dunes. Along the coast (more than 200 km long) lie islands, peninsulas and salt marshes that submerge at high tide. The main and only partially navigable rivers in New Jersey are the Delaware, which forms the border with Pennsylvania and Delaware, and the Hudson. There are numerous lakes, especially in the north, the largest of which are Lake Hopatcong and Greenwood Lake, which is partially located in New York State. A 457 m long dam in the valley of the Wanaque River, a tributary of the Passaic, gave rise to Lake Wanaque. New Jersey has a locally highly variable climate: the south has cool summers and mild winters; to the north the temperature differences increase.
The population density is 342 inhabitants. per km2. About 90% of the population lives in urban areas. The largest cities are Newark, Jersey City and Paterson. See top cities in New Jersey.
In New Jersey, formerly an agricultural state par excellence, industrialization took off in the 20th century, resulting in great mechanization and intensification of agriculture, which now employs only about 1% of the labor force. New Jersey has the most intensive agricultural production and the highest yield per hectare in the United States. The main products are maize, potatoes, vegetables and fruits (including cranberries); dairy products (especially eggs). Fishing (especially shellfish). The main economic sectors, by number of employees, are government, service companies and retail, followed by industry. The latter sector is the largest contributor to New Jersey’s income. The main products are electrical appliances, chemical products and foodstuffs. About 10% of all industrial research in the United States is conducted in New Jersey. The service sector includes transport and transport, banking and insurance, and tourism (numerous seaside resorts).
There are many beautiful natural areas along the New Jersey coast. In Atlantic City, gambling is legal (casinos). In the more mountainous northwest is the beautiful Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In a number of places the American Revolutionary War is commemorated. Also of historical interest is the town of Princeton with Princeton University.
The Dutch in the north and Swedes in the south were the first settlers in present-day New Jersey. The Dutch conquered the Swedish colony (1655) and in turn fell victim to English aggression (1664). The Duke of York gave the area between the Hudson and Delaware to two protégés, John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. The east of the colony was colonized by Puritans, but in the west the Quakers expanded their influence, leading to a division into two territories, which were not united until 1702, when New Jersey became a crown colony. During the American Revolutionary War, the population was very divided and suffered greatly from the acts of war. New Jersey became the 3rd state of the Union in 1787.