Oregon (abbr.: OR or Ore.), state of the United States of America, bordered by Washington, Idaho, Nevada, California and the Pacific Ocean, 251,181 km2, with 2.8 million inhabitants; capital: Salem.
Oregon belongs entirely to the area of the large mountain ranges in the western United States. The fertile Willamette Valley stretches between the heavily forested Coastal Range and the equally densely forested Cascade Range. The Cascade Range forms the western edge of a large lava plateau. This mountain range is separated from the rest of the lava plateau by a large north-south rift, which encompasses almost all of eastern Oregon. A number of volcanoes projecting 1,000 m above the fault have formed along the fault, such as Mount Hood (3584 m; the highest mountain in the state). The plateau merges into the Blue Mountains in the northeast. The southeast of the state belongs to the Great Basin. Oregon’s main river is the Columbia, which borders Washington state. The main tributaries are the Willamette (with dams at Oregon City and in the tributary North Santiam at Detroit), the Deschutes and the John Day. The Snake River, which flows into the Columbia, forms part of the border with Idaho. The Columbia breaks with waterfalls through the Cascade Gorge through the Cascades. Three large dams (with locks) have been constructed in this section at Bonneville, The Dallas and McNary. Reservoirs in John Day and Snake River provide energy and irrigation. In Southern Oregon, small rivers flow into salt lakes such as Albert Lake, Summer Lake, Harney Lake, and Malheur Lake. The large Klamath Lake is not salty because it has drainage to the sea via the Klamath, through California. The many lakes in the southern part of the Cascades are mostly crater lakes. Due to the relief, Oregon has two climates, the separation is the high Cascade Range. The western part, one third of the state, has a temperate maritime climate. The eastern part has a continental steppe climate.
The average population density is 11 inhabitants. per km2. About 70% of the population lives in cities. The largest are: Portland, Eugene and Salem. See top cities in Oregon.
Oregon is nearly half covered with forest, most of which is exploited. The processing of forest products is the state’s main industry (sawmills, carpentry, pulp and paper mills). After wood processing, the main industries are food, furniture and metallurgy, publishing and printing, metalware manufacturing, machinery, transportation supplies, electronic and precision instruments. The Cascades separate Oregon into two climatic zones and, consequently, into two agricultural regions. To the west of the mountain range, where there is ample rainfall, virtually any agricultural crop grown in the temperate zone can thrive; the main products here are: hay, potatoes, fruit (wine growing), ryegrass seed, barley and peppermint. Also dairy, poultry and pig farming. To the east of the mountains, irrigation is necessary and the emphasis is on wheat cultivation and cattle and sheep farming. Oregon is the only state in the United States that produces nickel (mine in Riddle, southwest). Gold, silver, copper, lead, mercury, uranium ore, chromite and gravel are also mined. Finally, the state is an important fish producer and, with its rich natural beauty, an important tourist area.
In the Cascade Range, in addition to a number of national forests, lies the Crater Lake National Park (1902; 52 km2) with a deep blue crater lake surrounded by high lava cliffs. On the border with Idaho is Hells Canyon National Recreation Area, with an awe-inspiring gorge formed by the Snake River. Oregon’s beautiful coastal strip is dotted with state parks.
In 1792, the Columbia River was discovered by Captain Robert Gray, who entered the estuary with his ship. The Americans Lewis and Clark came overland and wintered there in 1805/1806. In 1811 the Americans, who derived their property rights from the two discoveries, established Fort Astoria as the center of the fur trade, but the fort had to be abandoned as early as 1813; it came into the hands of British trappers. However, despite increasing British influence, the United States did not want to give up their claims. In 1818 it was decided on a compromise: for the time being they would jointly occupy the area. About 1840, however, a large migration of American settlers to this area began along the Oregon trial. In particular, many Protestant missionaries settled in Oregon (including such famous leaders as Jason Lee and Marcus Whitman, the latter was murdered by the Indians in 1847 with his entire family), while the renowned Flemish missionary Father De Smet also worked here. In 1846, the US government succeeded in concluding a treaty with Great Britain, granting Oregon to the United States. In 1848, the Oregon Territory was organized, which included the entire area between the Rocky Mountains and the sea and between 42° and 49° N. Br. In 1853, the Washington Territory was split off from this. Oregon was incorporated as a state into the Union in 1859. The rapid influx of immigrants caused numerous wars with the Native Americans; the last was that of the Nez Percés in 1877. Oregon has been at the forefront of political development in the early 20th century; as the first state in America it implemented all kinds of very democratic measures, together the so-called.
Oregon National Parks
Crater Lake National Park
Crater Lake National Park is a deep blue crater lake in the heart of Mount Mazama volcano. The park is surrounded by a number of national forests and the Cascade Mountains. The crater lake is 9.6 km long and 7.2 km wide and is located 1,882 meters above sea level. Since 1902, this park has been under the management of the National Park Service and is a protected area. Crater Lake National Park is accessible year round and accessible through the south entrance and the west entrance. The north entrance is closed from October to mid-July due to snowfall. If you want to visit the park, the Rim Drive is a recommended route as it takes you through the entire park.